“AI and machine learning will undoubtedly alter both the headcount and the nature of skills required in the industry. A significant minority of survey respondents fear the effects on the workforce will be negative within the next few years. But wholesale displacement of humans is for the longer term – nearly seven in ten believe AI will bring complete or substantial change to their own jobs over the next 15 years. Even in trading, where automation is already widespread, human roles will remain critical in areas such as algorithm validation and monitoring, as well as compliance. At this point, few believe machine learning models can or should drive financial-market operations completely independently of human control….”